Astrological Fundamentals 占星學的基本原理
行星不僅代表了聖經中上帝創造天地（Creation）的各個面向與功能，也象徵神聖意志（Divine Will）。占星家從行星的運行及互動中觀察出神性，因此，占星學脫離不了這個基本現實：沒有神性，占星學就無法存在，畢竟占星學是為了窺探神聖計畫（Divine Plan）所建構的。
設立回歸黃道（tropical Zodiac）是為了解決分點歲差的問題，目的是作為一種預測四季的曆法。回歸黃道是將太陽繞行地球的視路徑，即黃道（ecliptic）分割成十二等份所形成的，當太陽進入每個星座時，它的溫度（temperature）會根據該星座所代表的季節而改變50。黃道十二星座（zodiacal signs）的溫度，如行星一樣是透過冷、熱、乾、濕的原則來描述。由這項溫度的原則也延伸出占星的氣質（temperament），讓每個本命星盤都展現出整體的溫度或氣質，或是兩者的混合。
Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto:
An Investigation into the Sources of their Symbolism Part 03
Sue Ward (Written 2002)
The fundamentals of astrology reside with the planets of the solar system. The symbolic characters of the planets have developed over millennia and represent a mixture of cultures, religions, and mythologies. More than that, they represent a gradual development of meaning. With such a great distance of time, it cannot be deduced exactly how the planets originally acquired their symbolism. We might speculate about observation and experiment, but inspiration and contemplation might also have played a role, especially when astrology’s sacred nature is considered. The planets were residences, or representatives of the gods, and so absorbed much of the mythology associated with their gods.
The planets represented various facets and functions of Creation. More than that, they symbolized Divine Will. Through their motions and interactions, the astrologer observed divinity in motion. Astrology could not be separated from this fundamental reality; without the Divine, astrology could not exist, after all it had been constructed in order to gain access to the Divine Plan.
The body of knowledge in general use in the seventeenth century had evolved from many sources and represents the last coherent system in England before its dissolution. It retains the sacred nature of astrology, holds within itself the principle of Divinity, and looks to God as the final arbiter. In the present day, the secularization of astrology is all but complete and its philosophy is rarely seen in the writings of astrologers.
While variations of planetary symbolism can be found in the history of astrology, the first astrologers who tried to incorporate the new planets were grounded in the astrological legacy of the seventeenth century. The names of Lilly, Partridge, Coley, and Gadbury were some of those employed to imply astrological literacy, foundation, and lineage. These same had published primers for students, too, so it would therefore be reasonable to assume that those post-seventeenth century authors availed themselves of the symbolism employed and taught by their sources. As the last established astrological system of the western tradition, it is with this that comparisons are made and any later changes measured.
The following diagrams express the system’s fundamentals in simple terms and highlight the areas of greatest interest in this study.
The diagram on the next page, shows how the planets are distributed through the signs. The planets were allotted like this because of their relationships with the Sun or Moon, not because of any likeness they had with the natures of the signs. Those relationships are known as ‘sect’ and belong to the Sun and the Moon. The feminine, nocturnal signs are shown in grey and the planets ruling them belong to the lunar sect, the Moon being feminine and nocturnal. The same pertains to the solar sect planets; the Sun being masculine and diurnal, thus the planets ruling masculine and diurnal signs belong to its sect. There is another arrangement here: the planets are distributed in their orders relative to the Sun. Mercury and Venus are the closest planets to the Sun, then Mars and Jupiter, with Saturn the furthest away (Saturn is antipathetic to the Sun, the former being the Lord of Death and Darkness, the latter, the Lord of Life and Light). The planets have two signs of rulership each because they have one sign in each of the sects. The Sun has only one sign of rulership necessarily because it demarcates the day and night and is solely diurnal. The Moon is solely nocturnal and has only one sign of rulership.
Each planet is classified as masculine, feminine, diurnal, or nocturnal without reference to the zodiacal signs, and hot, cold, dry or moist, as shown below in the table.
The table shows, what are termed, the natures of the planets, for example, the Sun is masculine and diurnal and has a hot and dry nature. Saturn, although a cold planet, is allotted to the day to moderate its coldness. Mars is destructive through its extreme heat and so is allotted to the night to ameliorate that. Ptolemy explains it thus, “for in this way each of them attains good proportion through admixture and becomes a proper member of its sect, which provides moderation.“48 Mercury is termed common because, strictly speaking, it has no nature of its own, partaking of that planet with which it is most closely associated. It is nocturnal as an evening star and diurnal when a morning star.49
The tropical Zodiac was instituted to resolve the problems of the precession of the equinoxes. Its purpose is as a calendrical device, to enable prediction of the seasons. It is formed from the twelve-fold division of the Sun’s apparent path around the Earth called the ecliptic. As the Sun ingresses each sign its temperature is modified according to the season represented by that sign.50 The temperature of the zodiacal signs is described through the principles of hot, cold, moist, and dry in the same way as with the planets. It is from this principle of temperature that astrological temperaments are derived where each nativity expresses an overall temperature or temperament, or a mixture of these.
The following table (see next page) shows the fundamental attributions of the signs, excluded from it are significations relating to places, countries and towns, and physical descriptions. Fire signs are designated East; Earth signs South; Air signs West and Water signs North.
These classifications are clear, and from the qualities, natures, triplicities, and planetary rulers, conclusions can be drawn about how a planet is modified by its sign position.
The planets have an elemental nature quite separate from that of the signs:
- Saturn: earthy, melancholy;
- Jupiter: airy, sanguine;
- Mars: fiery, choleric;
- Sun: moderately hot and dry;
- Venus: airy and watery, phlegmatic and sanguine;
- Mercury: watery, cold and dry, melancholy. Also, mixed humours;
- Moon: phlegmatic.
In the figure on the next page of the exaltations of the planets (planets in feminine signs in grey), we see that the primary nature of the Sun is maintained. The Sun’s exaltation is in Aries, a moveable or cardinal sign; the three superior planets (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) occupy the remaining moveable signs. We will also see how important the benefics, Jupiter and Venus, are in maintaining harmony.
Aries is nominated as the first sign of the Zodiac and marks the vernal equinox, where the day and night are of equal length, and where the Sun gains power and begins its climb to its zenith signalling the end of the long nights. Aries is an eastern sign and the Sun rises in the east, and within it the Sun maintains its opposition to Saturn which has its exaltation in Libra.
The Moon, exalted in Taurus which is ruled by the benefic Venus, retains its position next to the Sun, but here its position is representative of its first light as a new Moon, as it breaks free of the Sun’s power. From Taurus it maintains trine relationships with Mercury and Mars, and sextile relationships with the benefics, Jupiter and Venus.
Jupiter, the moderating planet, has its exaltation in the northern sign of Cancer, where, Ptolemy says, Jupiter is most northerly and thus most fertile.51 It holds aspects with all the other planets, as might be expected in a system which is attempting to balance nature’s forces.
Mercury is exalted in its own sign of Virgo, which has raised questions about the veracity of the system. However, it holds a trine relationship with the Moon and Mars, a sextile relationship with the greater benefic, Jupiter, and an opposition aspect with the lesser benefic, Venus. Ptolemy associates the dryness of Mercury with the dryness of this autumnal sign.52
Saturn maintains its diurnality in Venus-ruled Libra, a western sign. The Sun sets in the west and Libra is the place of its fall (the opposition of exaltation), and Saturn, Lord of Darkness, takes precedence. Its malevolence is moderated in this diurnal sign and further by the square from Jupiter. Saturn also receives a square from the malefic Mars in this position, but Mars, too, has been moderated by having its exaltation in a nocturnal sign, that of Capricorn. Notice that Saturn receives no trines or sextiles.
The exaltation of Mars in Capricorn has also caused doubts to be raised about the system of exaltations. As mentioned earlier, it is the first of the superior planets and so has been given a moveable sign. It is a nocturnal planet and is exalted in a nocturnal sign and it maintains inimical aspectual relationships with the Sun and the two other superiors.53 It does, however, receive a sextile aspect from Venus in Pisces, which again demonstrates the harmonizing nature of this system. Ptolemy explains that the fiery nature of Mars is enhanced when it is most southerly in the sign of Capricorn.54
Venus is exalted in Pisces, which is ruled by Jupiter. Venus holds a trine aspect to Jupiter in Cancer and sextiles to the Moon and Mars. It is in opposition to Mercury’s exaltation in Virgo. The square and opposition aspects of the benefics do not carry the same obstructive symbolism as that of the others. Ptolemy holds that it is Venus’s watery nature that accords with watery Pisces, thus enhancing her fertile action.55
The power of the malefics to do harm is reduced, and at the same time the power of the benefics to do good has been increased. Mars aspects all of the others, like Jupiter; the former, perhaps, mobilizing, and the latter uplifting their actions when so placed. Likewise, the power of the Sun is clearly stated in Aries. The Moon’s is kept clear of the obliterating power of the Sun and the stultifying influence of Saturn.
The exaltations are part of the system of ‘essential dignities’ of the planets. Although not explained in this paper, the other subdivisions of the signs include the triplicities, terms, and faces, each having a planet, or planets, associated with them. Each of these places of dignity, including that of sign rulership, has been rejected or altered by astrologers in recent times. Those rejections and alterations have not, however, been uniform or consistently applied, there having been many suggestions made for alternative systems. In the ensuing confusion, most modern astrologers have laid aside their use to the extent that few ever learn of or about them.
The allocation of parts of the body to the signs of the Zodiac is in an obvious order and these are likewise attributed to the houses in numerical order, so that the 1st house signifies the head and face, as does Aries, the 2nd house signifies the neck and throat, as does Taurus, and so on. Known as the consignification of the houses, it is used to justify the notion that signs rule houses, for example, that Aries rules the 1st house, Taurus rules the 2nd, Gemini the 3rd, etc..56 Thus have modern astrologers introduced the concept of Mars having ‘natural’ rulership over the 1st house, because Mars rules Aries and Aries is the first sign; Venus over the 2nd house, because it rules Taurus, and so through the rest of the houses.57
Even when these ideas were being promoted they were problematic and their promoters found it necessary to excuse their lack of efficacy. For example, when attempting to explain the difference between a planet in a sign and a planet in a house (that is, according to this, Mars in the 1st house has practically the same meaning as Mars in Aries), we find, “it depends very much upon the individual how the influence will work out.“58 The responsibility for accuracy has again been transferred from the astrologer to the native, and none is accepted for the lack of validity of the principle.
There is no supporting evidence from the western predictive tradition for these ideas and whilst they demonstrate in themselves how symbolism can be changed, it will become clear just how important the concept of the consignification of signs and houses is to the symbolism of the trans-Saturnian planets.
To summarize, the signs cannot rule and they describe as much about the house or planet, as skin colour does about an individual. They can only describe the action of a planet or point placed within them. The signs obtain their symbolism from the classifications described in the table of attributions of the signs and from the planets ruling them. In relation to the houses, the planet ruling the sign on a house cusp is significant, or representative, of the affairs of that house. The sign so placed will be descriptive of the matters of the house, but it cannot rule the house.
It will become clear that the misapprehension of these fundamentals is the basis for part of the symbolism of the new planets.
48 Claudius Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, (London, 1980), p. 43.
49 When it rises before the Sun, it is a morning star, or matutine, and when it sets after the Sun it is an evening star, or vespertine.
50 The Moon echoes this seasonality through its four phases.
51 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, pp. 89-91; because of the fertility associated with the north winds which are themselves associated with Jupiter.
52 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 91.
53 In opposition with the Sun, and in square to Jupiter and Saturn.
54 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 91.
55 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 91.
56 Raymond Harrison, The Measure of Life: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Astrology (London, 1937), p. 64; Sepharial, The Manual of Astrology, p. 28; Robson, A Beginner’s Guide to Practical Astrology, p. 17; Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, p. 10.
57 The implication that Venus rules money is extrapolated from the erroneous principle of Taurus ruling the 2nd house of money. A further example of this line of thinking is shown from Jupiter’s rulership of foreign travel because it is said to rule the 9th house of foreign travel through its rulership of the ninth sign of Sagittarius. In the tradition, Jupiter signifies money and the Moon and Mercury signify travel.
58 Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, p. 147.
翻譯：Hueimin Lin/Julie Ho｜編審：Maki S. Zhai
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