〈前一集〉

 

Astrological Fundamentals 占星學的基本原理

占星學的根基建立在太陽系的行星,行星的象徵性特徵已經發展了數千年,相當於是一個文化、宗教與神話的綜合體,且不僅如此,它們也代表著象徵意義的逐步發展。但由於時間過於久遠,以至於無法準確推斷行星最初是如何獲得它們的象徵意義。我們也許能從觀察與檢驗中推測,但靈感與冥想(contemplation)也可能發揮作用,尤其是考量到占星學的神聖本質時。這些行星是眾神的居所或代表,因此吸收了大部分與祂們相關的神話。

行星不僅代表了聖經中上帝創造天地(Creation)的各個面向與功能,也象徵神聖意志(Divine Will)。占星家從行星的運行及互動中觀察出神性,因此,占星學脫離不了這個基本現實:沒有神性,占星學就無法存在,畢竟占星學是為了窺探神聖計畫(Divine Plan)所建構的。

十七世紀普遍使用的知識體系是從多個來源演變而來,同時也是大英帝國解體前最後一個有條理且連貫的系統,它保留占星學神聖的本質,秉持著神性原則並視上帝(God)為最終仲裁者(final arbiter)。時至今日,到處都能見到幾乎完全世俗化的占星學,但其哲學性質則很少出現在占星著作之中。

儘管可以從占星學歷史中找到行星象徵意義的各種變化,但第一批試圖整合新行星的占星家們則是以十七世紀傳承下來的占星學作為基礎,例如像里利、帕特里奇、科利及加德伯里等占星家的名字也都是用來暗示其占星傳承、根據以及派譜的名稱。他們同樣都為學生出版了入門書籍,所以能據此合理假設,十七世紀以後的占星作家是以這些來源作為依據,採用並教授了行星的象徵意義,是最後建立的西方傳統占星系統,而這正是我們用來進行比較並衡量後來所有變化的基準。

下圖用簡單的術語來表達系統的基本原理,並強調本研究中最受人關注的領域。

 

圖一顯示各行星被分配守護的星座,這是基於行星與太陽或月亮的關係,而非基於行星與星座性質之間的相似之處這層關係被稱為屬於太陽及月亮的「日夜區間」。陰性(feminine)、夜間的(nocturnal)星座以灰色顯示,而守護這些星座的行星都屬於由月亮主宰的夜間行星,即月亮象徵陰性和夜間。太陽主宰的日間行星也是如此,太陽是陽性(masculine)且在日間(diurnal),因此守護陽性、日間星座的的行星,就屬於太陽的區間。還有另一種配置:行星按照它們與太陽的相對位置順序分布。水星與金星距離太陽最近,其次是火星與木星,土星最遠(土星與太陽相反,前者是死亡與黑暗之王,後者是生命與光明之王)。每顆行星之所以要守護兩個星座,是因為它們在每個區間(sects)都要守護一個星座,而太陽必然只會守護一個星座,因為它劃分了日夜,而且只屬於日間,月亮則只屬於夜間,且同樣只守護一個星座。

在不參考黃道星座下,每顆行星依據陰性、陽性、日間與夜間,以及冷(cold)、熱(hot)、乾(dry)、濕(moist)進行分類,如圖二所示:

 

圖二顯示的是行星的性質,例如:太陽是陽性日間的,性質為熱乾。土星雖是一顆寒冷的行星,但被分配到日間來緩和土星的寒冷。火星因極熱極乾而且具有破壞性,因此被分配到夜間來緩和。托勒密這樣解釋:「透過這種融合的方式,每一顆行星都能得到良好的協調,因而成為日夜區間內的適當成員48嚴格來說,水星沒有自己的性質,所以被歸類在雙性行星,會帶有與它最密切相關的行星性質。水星可以是夜星,也能是日間的晨星49

設立回歸黃道(tropical Zodiac)是為了解決分點歲差的問題,目的是作為一種預測四季的曆法。回歸黃道是將太陽繞行地球的視路徑,即黃道(ecliptic)分割成十二等份所形成的,當太陽進入每個星座時,它的溫度(temperature)會根據該星座所代表的季節而改變50。黃道十二星座(zodiacal signs)的溫度,如行星一樣是透過冷、熱、乾、濕的原則來描述。由這項溫度的原則也延伸出占星的氣質(temperament),讓每個本命星盤都展現出整體的溫度或氣質,或是兩者的混合。

圖三顯示的是星座的基本屬性,不包括與地點、國家和城鎮有關的含義及物理性的描述。火象星座被定義為東方;土象星座為南方;風象星座為西方;水象星座為北方。

這些分類很明確,且從質料(qualities)、本質(natures)、元素(triplicities)和守護星(planetary rulers)可以得出行星如何因所在星座而被調整的結論。

行星具有與星座截然不同的元素特性:

  • 土星:土象、黑膽汁
  • 木星:風象、血液質
  • 火星:火象、黃膽汁
  • 太陽:中度熱乾
  • 金星:風與水、黏液與血液質
  • 水星:水象、冷和乾、黑膽汁,也屬於混和體液(humour)
  • 月亮:黏液質

以下的行星旺位(exaltation)圖中,陰性星座以灰色表示,我們看到太陽得以維持主要的性質。太陽入旺在白羊座,是啟動(moveable)或稱基本(cardinal)星座;三顆外行星(火星、木星和土星)佔據剩下的啟動星座位置。我們也將看到吉星木星與金星在維持和諧方面的重要性。

 

白羊座被指定為黃道十二星座的第一個星座,代表晝夜等長的春分(vernal equinox),此時太陽的力量增加,並開始爬升到天頂(zenith),代表漫長夜晚的終結。白羊座象徵太陽升起的東方,而太陽始終與入旺在天秤座的土星維持對分相(opposition)。

月亮入旺於吉星金星守護的金牛座,位於太陽旁,但這個位置就像新月般展現擺脫太陽的第一道光。從金牛座開始,它與水星及火星保持三分相(trine)的關係,與吉星木星和金星為六分相(sextile)。

木星這顆溫和的行星,入旺在象徵北方的巨蟹座,托勒密說:「在那裡,木星位於最北方,故最富饒 51」。木星與所有其他行星都有相位,正如所料,木星在系統中試圖平衡自然的力量。

水星入旺在自己守護的處女座,這讓系統的真實性受到質疑。然而,水星與月亮、火星形成三分相,與大吉星木星為六分相,又與小吉星金星形成對分相位。托勒密將水星的乾燥與這秋季星座的乾燥相連結52

土星在代表西方且由金星守護的天秤座中維持自己的日間性。太陽西下的天秤座正好就是太陽的弱(fall),因為在太陽入旺星座的對面,黑暗之王—土星已在這裡。土星在日間星座緩和了其凶性,並由木星的四分相(square)進一步化解凶性。土星在此位置也與凶星火星形成四分相,但火星也入旺在緩和凶性的夜間星座——魔羯座。請注意,土星沒有與其他行星形成三分相或六分相位。

火星入旺在魔羯座,也引發人們對於旺位系統的質疑。如前述,火星是第一顆外行星,因此分配在啟動星座。火星是夜間行星並入旺在夜間星座,還與太陽跟其他兩顆外行星形成不利的相位關係53。然而,火星也確實與金星雙魚座形成六分相,再次證明此系統的和諧本質。托勒密解釋說,當火星位於最南端的魔羯座時,會增強火象的性質54

金星入旺於木星守護的雙魚座,與木星巨蟹形成三分相,與月亮及火星形成六分相,並與入旺在處女座的水星形成對分相。吉星的四分相與對分相並不像其他行星那樣帶有阻礙的象徵意義。托勒密認為,正是金星的水象特質符合水象的雙魚座,因而增強了金星的生育力55

凶星(malefics)減輕了凶性,同時吉星的吉性增強。火星與所有其他行星都形成相位,比如木星;火星可能會為這些行星賦予行動,而木星在這樣的配置下也會提升這些行星的行動力。同樣地,太陽在白羊座的力量已有明確說明,月亮則避開太陽抹去一切的力量,以及土星的限制性影響。

行星入旺是「先天尊貴」的一部份,雖然本文中沒有解釋,但星座還可細分為包含一個或多個三分性尊貴、界與外觀的主星。近期占星家拒絕使用、或變更了這些尊貴的位置,包括星座主星的先天尊貴。縱使,已經對替代系統提出許多建議,這些否決及變更在應用上並不統一或一致;而在後續的混亂中,大多數的現代占星家都放棄使用這些法則,以至於很少有人聽過或學過。

黃道十二宮對應的身體部位顯然是以身體和數字的順序分配宮位。因此,第一宮跟白羊座一樣代表頭跟臉,第二宮與金牛座都象徵頸部與喉嚨等等。宮位的象徵被用來將先天黃道十二宮的概念合理化,例如:白羊座掌管第一宮,金牛座掌管第二宮,雙子座掌管第三宮等等……56因此,現代占星家引進了由火星守護「先天」第一宮的概念,因為火星是白羊座的守護星,而白羊座則是先天黃道十二宮第一個星座;金星守護第二宮,因為金星是金牛座的守護星,其餘宮位以此類推57

即使在推廣這些觀點時就窒礙難行,提倡者仍認為必須為這些缺乏效力的觀點進行辯解。例如,在試圖解釋一顆行星所在星座與宮位之間的差異時(也就是火星落在第一宮,跟火星位在白羊座幾乎具有相同含義),我們發現「會發揮什麼樣的影響,很大程度是取決於個人58」。這再次把占星準確度的責任從占星師轉嫁到命主身上,無法接受是因為該原理缺乏有效性。

西方的預測傳統中沒有證據能夠支持上述的概念,雖然它們本身便已證明象徵意義的轉變,而這也顯示星座與宮位具有共同意義的這個概念,對於土星外行星的象徵意義有多重要。

總而言之,星座沒有管轄權,星座能夠提供給宮位和行星的描述,最多就像我們在描述個人的膚色而已。星座只能描述位在這裡的行星或虛點會有什麼行動。星座從其屬性表上的分類及守護行星上獲得象徵意義。就宮位而言,宮始點星座的主星對於該宮位事務來說非常的重要,或是可代表該宮位的事務。守護該處的星座只能用來描述宮位內發生的事情,而不能主宰這個宮位。

顯然,新行星部分象徵意義的基礎,是建立在對上述基本原理的誤解。

 

繼續閱讀:第四集《發現天王星的事件盤》

 

Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto:

An Investigation into the Sources of their Symbolism  Part 03

Sue Ward (Written 2002)

 


 

Astrological Fundamentals

The fundamentals of astrology reside with the planets of the solar system. The symbolic characters of the planets have developed over millennia and represent a mixture of cultures, religions, and mythologies. More than that, they represent a gradual development of meaning. With such a great distance of time, it cannot be deduced exactly how the planets originally acquired their symbolism. We might speculate about observation and experiment, but inspiration and contemplation might also have played a role, especially when astrology’s sacred nature is considered. The planets were residences, or representatives of the gods, and so absorbed much of the mythology associated with their gods.

The planets represented various facets and functions of Creation. More than that, they symbolized Divine Will. Through their motions and interactions, the astrologer observed divinity in motion. Astrology could not be separated from this fundamental reality; without the Divine, astrology could not exist, after all it had been constructed in order to gain access to the Divine Plan.

The body of knowledge in general use in the seventeenth century had evolved from many sources and represents the last coherent system in England before its dissolution. It retains the sacred nature of astrology, holds within itself the principle of Divinity, and looks to God as the final arbiter. In the present day, the secularization of astrology is all but complete and its philosophy is rarely seen in the writings of astrologers.

While variations of planetary symbolism can be found in the history of astrology, the first astrologers who tried to incorporate the new planets were grounded in the astrological legacy of the seventeenth century. The names of Lilly, Partridge, Coley, and Gadbury were some of those employed to imply astrological literacy, foundation, and lineage. These same had published primers for students, too, so it would therefore be reasonable to assume that those post-seventeenth century authors availed themselves of the symbolism employed and taught by their sources. As the last established astrological system of the western tradition, it is with this that comparisons are made and any later changes measured.

The following diagrams express the system’s fundamentals in simple terms and highlight the areas of greatest interest in this study.

 

The diagram on the next page, shows how the planets are distributed through the signs. The planets were allotted like this because of their relationships with the Sun or Moon, not because of any likeness they had with the natures of the signs. Those relationships are known as ‘sect’ and belong to the Sun and the Moon. The feminine, nocturnal signs are shown in grey and the planets ruling them belong to the lunar sect, the Moon being feminine and nocturnal. The same pertains to the solar sect planets; the Sun being masculine and diurnal, thus the planets ruling masculine and diurnal signs belong to its sect. There is another arrangement here: the planets are distributed in their orders relative to the Sun. Mercury and Venus are the closest planets to the Sun, then Mars and Jupiter, with Saturn the furthest away (Saturn is antipathetic to the Sun, the former being the Lord of Death and Darkness, the latter, the Lord of Life and Light). The planets have two signs of rulership each because they have one sign in each of the sects. The Sun has only one sign of rulership necessarily because it demarcates the day and night and is solely diurnal. The Moon is solely nocturnal and has only one sign of rulership.

Each planet is classified as masculine, feminine, diurnal, or nocturnal without reference to the zodiacal signs, and hot, cold, dry or moist, as shown below in the table.

 

 

The table shows, what are termed, the natures of the planets, for example, the Sun is masculine and diurnal and has a hot and dry nature. Saturn, although a cold planet, is allotted to the day to moderate its coldness. Mars is destructive through its extreme heat and so is allotted to the night to ameliorate that. Ptolemy explains it thus, “for in this way each of them attains good proportion through admixture and becomes a proper member of its sect, which provides moderation.48 Mercury is termed common because, strictly speaking, it has no nature of its own, partaking of that planet with which it is most closely associated. It is nocturnal as an evening star and diurnal when a morning star.49

The tropical Zodiac was instituted to resolve the problems of the precession of the equinoxes. Its purpose is as a calendrical device, to enable prediction of the seasons. It is formed from the twelve-fold division of the Sun’s apparent path around the Earth called the ecliptic. As the Sun ingresses each sign its temperature is modified according to the season represented by that sign.50 The temperature of the zodiacal signs is described through the principles of hot, cold, moist, and dry in the same way as with the planets. It is from this principle of temperature that astrological temperaments are derived where each nativity expresses an overall temperature or temperament, or a mixture of these.

The following table (see next page) shows the fundamental attributions of the signs, excluded from it are significations relating to places, countries and towns, and physical descriptions. Fire signs are designated East; Earth signs South; Air signs West and Water signs North.

These classifications are clear, and from the qualities, natures, triplicities, and planetary rulers, conclusions can be drawn about how a planet is modified by its sign position.

The planets have an elemental nature quite separate from that of the signs:

  • Saturn: earthy, melancholy;
  • Jupiter: airy, sanguine;
  • Mars: fiery, choleric;
  • Sun: moderately hot and dry;
  • Venus: airy and watery, phlegmatic and sanguine;
  • Mercury: watery, cold and dry, melancholy. Also, mixed humours;
  • Moon: phlegmatic.

In the figure on the next page of the exaltations of the planets (planets in feminine signs in grey), we see that the primary nature of the Sun is maintained. The Sun’s exaltation is in Aries, a moveable or cardinal sign; the three superior planets (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) occupy the remaining moveable signs. We will also see how important the benefics, Jupiter and Venus, are in maintaining harmony.

Aries is nominated as the first sign of the Zodiac and marks the vernal equinox, where the day and night are of equal length, and where the Sun gains power and begins its climb to its zenith signalling the end of the long nights. Aries is an eastern sign and the Sun rises in the east, and within it the Sun maintains its opposition to Saturn which has its exaltation in Libra.

The Moon, exalted in Taurus which is ruled by the benefic Venus, retains its position next to the Sun, but here its position is representative of its first light as a new Moon, as it breaks free of the Sun’s power. From Taurus it maintains trine relationships with Mercury and Mars, and sextile relationships with the benefics, Jupiter and Venus.

Jupiter, the moderating planet, has its exaltation in the northern sign of Cancer, where, Ptolemy says, Jupiter is most northerly and thus most fertile.51 It holds aspects with all the other planets, as might be expected in a system which is attempting to balance nature’s forces.

Mercury is exalted in its own sign of Virgo, which has raised questions about the veracity of the system. However, it holds a trine relationship with the Moon and Mars, a sextile relationship with the greater benefic, Jupiter, and an opposition aspect with the lesser benefic, Venus. Ptolemy associates the dryness of Mercury with the dryness of this autumnal sign.52

Saturn maintains its diurnality in Venus-ruled Libra, a western sign. The Sun sets in the west and Libra is the place of its fall (the opposition of exaltation), and Saturn, Lord of Darkness, takes precedence. Its malevolence is moderated in this diurnal sign and further by the square from Jupiter. Saturn also receives a square from the malefic Mars in this position, but Mars, too, has been moderated by having its exaltation in a nocturnal sign, that of Capricorn. Notice that Saturn receives no trines or sextiles.

The exaltation of Mars in Capricorn has also caused doubts to be raised about the system of exaltations. As mentioned earlier, it is the first of the superior planets and so has been given a moveable sign. It is a nocturnal planet and is exalted in a nocturnal sign and it maintains inimical aspectual relationships with the Sun and the two other superiors.53 It does, however, receive a sextile aspect from Venus in Pisces, which again demonstrates the harmonizing nature of this system. Ptolemy explains that the fiery nature of Mars is enhanced when it is most southerly in the sign of Capricorn.54

Venus is exalted in Pisces, which is ruled by Jupiter. Venus holds a trine aspect to Jupiter in Cancer and sextiles to the Moon and Mars. It is in opposition to Mercury’s exaltation in Virgo. The square and opposition aspects of the benefics do not carry the same obstructive symbolism as that of the others. Ptolemy holds that it is Venus’s watery nature that accords with watery Pisces, thus enhancing her fertile action.55

The power of the malefics to do harm is reduced, and at the same time the power of the benefics to do good has been increased. Mars aspects all of the others, like Jupiter; the former, perhaps, mobilizing, and the latter uplifting their actions when so placed. Likewise, the power of the Sun is clearly stated in Aries. The Moon’s is kept clear of the obliterating power of the Sun and the stultifying influence of Saturn.

The exaltations are part of the system of ‘essential dignities’ of the planets. Although not explained in this paper, the other subdivisions of the signs include the triplicities, terms, and faces, each having a planet, or planets, associated with them. Each of these places of dignity, including that of sign rulership, has been rejected or altered by astrologers in recent times. Those rejections and alterations have not, however, been uniform or consistently applied, there having been many suggestions made for alternative systems. In the ensuing confusion, most modern astrologers have laid aside their use to the extent that few ever learn of or about them.

The allocation of parts of the body to the signs of the Zodiac is in an obvious order and these are likewise attributed to the houses in numerical order, so that the 1st house signifies the head and face, as does Aries, the 2nd house signifies the neck and throat, as does Taurus, and so on. Known as the consignification of the houses, it is used to justify the notion that signs rule houses, for example, that Aries rules the 1st house, Taurus rules the 2nd, Gemini the 3rd, etc..56 Thus have modern astrologers introduced the concept of Mars having ‘natural’ rulership over the 1st house, because Mars rules Aries and Aries is the first sign; Venus over the 2nd house, because it rules Taurus, and so through the rest of the houses.57

Even when these ideas were being promoted they were problematic and their promoters found it necessary to excuse their lack of efficacy. For example, when attempting to explain the difference between a planet in a sign and a planet in a house (that is, according to this, Mars in the 1st house has practically the same meaning as Mars in Aries), we find, “it depends very much upon the individual how the influence will work out.58 The responsibility for accuracy has again been transferred from the astrologer to the native, and none is accepted for the lack of validity of the principle.

There is no supporting evidence from the western predictive tradition for these ideas and whilst they demonstrate in themselves how symbolism can be changed, it will become clear just how important the concept of the consignification of signs and houses is to the symbolism of the trans-Saturnian planets.

To summarize, the signs cannot rule and they describe as much about the house or planet, as skin colour does about an individual. They can only describe the action of a planet or point placed within them. The signs obtain their symbolism from the classifications described in the table of attributions of the signs and from the planets ruling them. In relation to the houses, the planet ruling the sign on a house cusp is significant, or representative, of the affairs of that house. The sign so placed will be descriptive of the matters of the house, but it cannot rule the house.

It will become clear that the misapprehension of these fundamentals is the basis for part of the symbolism of the new planets.

Continue…

48 Claudius Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, (London, 1980), p. 43.

49 When it rises before the Sun, it is a morning star, or matutine, and when it sets after the Sun it is an evening star, or vespertine.

50 The Moon echoes this seasonality through its four phases.

51 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, pp. 89-91; because of the fertility associated with the north winds which are themselves associated with Jupiter.

52 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 91.

53 In opposition with the Sun, and in square to Jupiter and Saturn.

54 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 91.

55 Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 91.

56 Raymond Harrison, The Measure of Life: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Astrology (London, 1937), p. 64; Sepharial, The Manual of Astrology, p. 28; Robson, A Beginner’s Guide to Practical Astrology, p. 17; Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, p. 10.

57 The implication that Venus rules money is extrapolated from the erroneous principle of Taurus ruling the 2nd house of money. A further example of this line of thinking is shown from Jupiter’s rulership of foreign travel because it is said to rule the 9th house of foreign travel through its rulership of the ninth sign of Sagittarius. In the tradition, Jupiter signifies money and the Moon and Mercury signify travel.

58 Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, p. 147.

翻譯:Hueimin Lin/Julie Ho|編審:Maki S. Zhai


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發佈留言必須填寫的電子郵件地址不會公開。

作者:蘇‧沃德(Sue Ward)

蘇‧沃德自 1983 年首次發現傳統占星學以來,便持續研究。自那時起,她專攻卜卦占星學,並透過她在 1993 年創辦的課程幫助他人學習傳統占星學的系統。多年來她已將研究發表在各種期刊和雜誌,她撰寫了 Das Fundament der Astrologie(Tubingen ,2011 ),並與 彼得·史托金格(Peter Stockinger) 合著了 “William Lilly:Astrologer and Adept”(2014 )。 除了其他事項之外,她還從事客戶諮詢、個人指導以及演講, 但她的熱情始終在於透過學習和研究發現占星學之美。

她主要關注在偉大占星家威廉·里利(William Lilly,1602-1681 )的著作,那是她作為占星實踐的基礎。 最近,她一直在學習成為歷史學家,並在 2020 年獲得一等榮譽學位以支持她的研究。

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