Neptune (discovered 1846)｜海王星（在一八四六年發現）
Misunderstanding of the Astrological System｜對占星系統的誤解
Pluto (discovered 1930)｜冥王星（在一九三○年發現）
在研究冥王星被發現之後的參考資料時，必須留意到，一九三○年之前的資料也對其象徵意義具有顯著的影響。如前所述，占星家和天文學家假設未來還會發現其他行星，因此，對神智學占星家來說，這已經成了對十二個黃道星座（不同的）守護行星的追尋，特別是兩位作者都認為他們已經實現了此一目標，並在冥王星被發現之前發表了他們的發現。117兩人都詳細說明他們各自的構想，其中包含火星和木星之間的小行星，以及假定的行星。其中一人將巨蟹座的星座主管權給予了假設的冥王星，另一人則分配給天蠍座。這裡應理解的是，儘管這些占星家預期會發現更多的行星，但提及冥王星的假說並不能被視為發現冥王星的預測。除此之外，他們也使用祝融星（Vulcan）和忽女星（Dido）等，並指出艾倫．里奧如何費盡心思區分「羅威爾的冥王星」（Lowell-Pluto）和「韋米斯的冥王星」（Wemyss-Pluto）。韋米斯自己在一九四○年代末期出版《生命之輪或科學占星》（Wheel of Life or Scientific Astrology）最後一冊時也堅守那樣的立場。118
Discovery Chart ｜冥王星的發現盤
冥王星與核能或原子能有關，說是主管核武器。原子哲學的起源可追溯至西元前五世紀的古希臘；德謨克利特（Democritus of Abdera）將物質的組成部分稱為「原子」（字面意思是：「不可分割」）。現代原子理論奠基於道爾頓（Dalton）及其他十九世紀早期學者的研究成果，而相關研究在整個十九世紀也有更深入的進展。如同將科學進展歸因於天王星和海王星的時候一樣，其關鍵的發展過程受到了忽略，唯一引起關注的是一九三二年發現中子，以及原子的分裂。
Misunderstanding of the Astrological System｜對占星系統的誤解
英國占星學院（Faculty of Astrological Studies）一九五四年至一九六九年的院長瑪格麗特·霍恩（Margaret Hone）對占星學界帶來了重大影響，她的話值得研究：
神智學家提出的「密義」占星學，被宣稱優於任何其他系統或原理，從這裡，再加上混亂的占星原則和技術，像里奧這樣的占星家，其動機已經昭然若揭。顯然地，占星學被蓄意地、故意地轉換成符合神智學的學說，這種對占星系統的轉換幾乎是在沒有考慮後果的情況下進行。他們相信自己的行為是廉潔的，這也助長了他們的動力，甚至認為任何事物都會比舊系統要好。該學說被視為真理，並持續構成今日占星實踐的主要部分，尤其是三王星的部分。他們的確信和錯誤讓這古老而神聖的科學向不合理的過度行為敞開，催生了這調換兒的系統（the Changeling System）審註2。
Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto:
An Investigation into the Sources of their Symbolism Part 05 (End)
Sue Ward (Written 2002)
Neptune (discovered 1846)
Much that has been explained about Uranus, applies to the subsequent discoveries of Neptune and Pluto. The process of delineating new planets, though, was greatly accelerated. A significant proportion of the astrological community had convinced itself of the action of Uranus and, thus, of their methods of deducing its symbolism. However, of the seven general sources for Uranus’s symbolism, mentioned earlier, only three were identified for Neptune to any degree, those of myth, Theosophical doctrine, and astrological misunderstanding.
There are few early references; the almanacs simply produced its glyph. Of those almanacs that were examined, nothing could be found relating to Neptune alone. Some interpretations were provided when it was connected with other planets, but only in general terms. By 1865, Neptune’s glyph was being provided, but nothing more is mentioned about it; the greater part of the symbolic information about Neptune is obtained from Theosophist astrologers of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as before.97 It is clear from their published works that Neptune was more problematic than Uranus had been, and as will be shown, this was never fully resolved.
The above figure charts the discovery of Neptune. As with the position of Uranus at the time of its discovery, Neptune is not angular, being in the 8th house. As Uranus was placed in opposition with the malefics Mars and Saturn at its discovery, Neptune is closely conjunct the Greater Malefic, Saturn. Although, Saturn is in its own sign of Aquarius, it is badly placed and retrograde. There is a little evidence to suggest that the astrologers considered Saturn’s symbolism as they began to delineate Neptune, although both Uranus and Neptune were considered malefic until Theosophical doctrine was brought to bear.98 In fact, the discovery chart was given scant attention:
We need not traverse the history of the discovery of Neptune, except to note that it was found in Berlin on the night of September 23rd, 1846,…99
No justification is offered for this statement and, given that the chart of the discovery of Uranus formed the basis of its symbolism, such justification is necessary. Indeed, Uranus is now associated with explosions and sudden catastrophes which still draws on its alleged Mars-Saturn nature.
There was little symbolism to be drawn from Neptune’s astronomical characteristics. Indeed, since Uranus had been described as eccentric because of the eccentricity of its orbit, this symbolism could not be re-used. Neptune’s distance from the Earth, and indeed from Uranus, obstructed the astronomers’ ability to discover much information about it; from this, astrologer’s drew its symbolism of mystery.
The rise of socialism in the 1840s is the source of Neptune’s association with self-sacrifice for the good of the community, and, of course, socialism itself. From this was extrapolated idealism, charitable acts, and institutions. Once more, the astrologers ignored the developmental line, treating this movement as isolated and directly linked to Neptune’s discovery. Modern socialism has its roots in the Industrial Revolution, which was itself linked to Uranus. The astrological community appears not to have noticed the paradox.
The dearth of notable political events with which to associate Neptune has been attributed to its non-political nature, so the lack of political connections has produced an apolitical symbolism.100
There are few scientific advances associated with Neptune, although the first demonstration of the use of ether as a general anaesthetic (1846) is linked to it. Hence, associations with drugs, particularly narcotics and addictive drugs have been extended from that. These matters would usually be associated with Saturn depending on the context, particularly toxins.101 Hemp is associated with Saturn, for example. However, each planet has rulership over various drugs and medications according to their natures: Jupiter has rulership over liquorice which is used in mixtures for coughs; the Sun rules euphrasia (eye-bright), used for diseases of the eyes.
An association that is rarely seen in astrological literature takes this a little further and attributes ‘the consolidation of steam power for travel’ to Neptune,102 which goes some way to linking Neptune to the Transport Revolution of the period. It is difficult to understand this statement when transport had already been associated with Uranus, although steam power had not been mentioned.
With the lack of other sources, emphasis was placed upon the myth of the god of the sea, Poseidon. This shortage of material appears to have caused little concern and raised no comment. There is no evidence of comparisons having been made with the methods used for deriving Uranus’s symbolism, and that inconsistency is seemingly overlooked.
Astronomers, following tradition, named the new planet Neptune, and astrologers looked to the myth of Poseidon for further clues. Another son of Cronos, Poseidon ruled over the sea, thus, the planet Neptune became ruler of all things maritime. This rulership was extended to include all liquids, formerly the dominion of the Moon, as the astrologers struggled for explanation of this new member of the solar system. As we shall see Venus was also plundered for its symbolism.
For those astrologers, the oceans of Poseidon became the depths of the human psyche and of their emotions. Hence, intuition and psychic or mediumistic abilities were associated with it, and Neptune represented all kinds of mysticism.
The principle of ‘octaves’ was extended to Neptune. If Uranus was the higher octave of Mercury, then proceeding in order, Neptune would be the higher octave of Venus. Alcohol, love, art, music, poetry, artistic pursuits, and thus, photography, cinematography, fashion, imagination were all removed from the domain of Venus.
In the earlier published works, we can identify uncertainty with Neptune’s action:
Neptune,… has, on the whole, but a faint influence upon our earth and its inhabitants. The undeveloped psychic who is unable to control the mediumistic tendencies induced from without, and those who are easily obsessed or of very weak will, always subject to changing impressions, will in one sense come under Neptune as will also those who are very highly advanced psychically.103 … but many years must elapse before sufficient tabulation is made to warrant a reliable opinion concerning Neptune’s vibrations.104
After offering detailed descriptions and illustrations of the physicality of the Uranian and Neptunian types, the author makes the following comment:
In both the Uranian and Neptunian types as illustrated, imagination has had to play a prominent part, owing to the scarcity of these types at our present stage of evolution.105
Not only has symbolism been pretended, but there is never any question that the ‘scarcity of these types’ is because Neptune does not have any such symbolic meaning and, therefore that, ‘the Neptunian type’ might not, in fact, exist.
The subject of the three classes of humanity was re-applied in order to explain failures in delineation.106 Again, instruction on how to identify those who can respond to Neptune, as predicted, and those who cannot, is not forthcoming. It is noticeable that Neptune could be extremely malefic or ‘highly spiritual’, so, like Uranus, the symbolic net was spread widely.107 Students are advised that “Neptune’s influence depends entirely upon the native’s ability to respond to its vibrations“.108 If the native did not attest to the effects of Neptune’s influence, we must assume that he or she was cast into the ‘lower class’ – an unattractive proposition. A little later, we find specific reference to the type of person who would respond to these new planets. Unlike the slightly earlier period, this ‘advanced’ type has become less god-like:
To those who can respond to their very high vibrations, Uranus and Neptune (and probably Pluto) denote the more highly cultivated types of humanity.109
We might assume that this type was to be found among the astrologers and Theosophists already mentioned as responding to the higher vibration of Uranus. It is difficult to imagine that large numbers of clients would have disagreed with such a description.
Having established the precedent of accepting errors in delineation with Uranus, the process continued with Neptune. Future astrologers would solve the riddle of its symbolism and, although a great deal was written about this new addition, in detail, they were circumspect enough to suggest the possibility of error.110 These remarks were made repeatedly, but it seemed never to prevent anyone from verbosity on the subject.
Psychism having been accepted as a valid means of research (the rise of Spiritualism having been associated with the discovery of Neptune), it is necessary to explore Neptune’s reputation as ‘nebulous’. This symbolism has, like much of the rest, persisted to the present day and from it has been extended a great deal more. For example, confusion, mistiness, lying, cheating, muddle, error, forgetfulness, and so on all were born from this one interpretation. Its source cannot be found in any of the areas already explored by this paper; it does not relate to Neptune’s physical characteristics, or its myth, or science. Its source provides the clearest evidence of the dubious and superficial methods of so-called ‘scientific’ research employed by the Theosophist astrologers.
“Viewed clairvoyantly in the crystal, Neptune appears as a nebulous plasma.“111
The author then proceeds to delineate Neptune according to this revelation and it is a delineation which persists to this day. There is no trace of the lofty, scientific ideals of earlier days, and, although some astrologers recognized the need for a more rigorous approach, they, nonetheless, presented and promoted the same symbolism for these new planets to their readership.112
Misunderstanding of the Astrological System
The model of Uranus was closely adhered to. Neptune denoted a watery planet because of its reliance on the Poseidon myth, and would follow in order to become the ruler, or co-ruler of Pisces, a watery sign and the exaltation of Venus. This is treated as a system:
“it would appear that the exaltation of a planet is the house of its octave expression.“113
The error of the consignifications of signs and houses is repeated so that their associations of the 12th house (Pisces being the twelfth sign) was given to Neptune. For example, hospitals are attributed to Neptune: they had extrapolated that from the 12th house association with prisons and captivity.114 Neptune then became the ruler of places of confinement, retreat, and exile. From this was drawn its rulership of Pisces and from this, both Pisces and the 12th house accrued rulership of such things as mysticism, mediumship, dreams, and visions.
The resulting mixture was a planet of mystery, its effects unknown and not experienced by any but the most refined. Its watery connection to the unconscious mind gave maximum latitude since it might be that the native was unaware of its influence. Thus, many more people could be brought under its symbolism. The tenuous links and associations that were gathered have never been changed. The symbolism remains the same now as it was then, implying acceptance by present-day astrologers, even though its promoters advised caution.
Pluto (discovered 1930)
With this discovery all caution and convention was abandoned as various authors hastened to publish their theories. There was no delay in publishing detailed interpretations and opinions of Pluto’s influence, and a number of viewpoints about the sign it ruled and fundamental rulerships were put into place very quickly. Having previously maintained that practice and experience were the only true measures of validity, these, too, were put aside.
By this time, the structure of the western astrological tradition had been breached repeatedly. As we have seen, further planetary discoveries had been expected, and the Theosophist astrologers had made their contingency plans: new planets would complete the astrological jigsaw. That those same planets were the cause of those fractures remained unrecognized. When the promised revelation failed to materialize, they resorted to established excuses: the freewill of the native, the shortage of that advanced human being capable of responding to Pluto’s influences, and the inherent mysteriousness of the planet itself.
The procedures which were followed in assessing Pluto’s characteristics, can be categorized in the same way as with Uranus and Neptune. With the greater speed, the substance of those categories was mixed together and extended to a far greater degree than before. Such a mixture complicates any attempt to isolate its ingredients, and is exacerbated by the increased use of psychological jargon.
The die had been cast with Uranus and Neptune, there was no reason to doubt their places in the astrological scheme, nor was there with Pluto.
Astrologers wasted no time in publishing their opinions on Pluto; most authors, though, prefaced their long discourses with recommendations of caution. One of the earliest references has been chosen because of the comprehensive nature of its author’s treatment of Pluto. With few reservations, Brunhubner dedicates the entire book to his thesis. Although this edition was not published until 1966, the author’s preface is dated 1934. Moreover, he states that he first unveiled his ‘observations’ in 1933. He also makes it clear that he was the ‘first to give to the public a comprehensive work on the new planet.’115
Doubts about the wisdom of such haste are not apparent because in their view, again, although the detail of their findings might be flawed, the generalities were not. The astrologers of the future would correct any errors and supplement these early observations.
In 1937, one author admits that little is known about Pluto suggesting that its position can only be of ‘speculative interest’. He repeats this a little later; however, such circumspection does not impede his confident statement that it is:
a planet of action and signifies an attempt to throw off the accumulations that have resulted from the lethargy of Neptune – and a desire to be free of the bonds which the latter has imposed…. It is therefore violent in its effects, which explains its now known connection with illness and accidents, as well as its presence and import both in the maps of musicians and the spiritually inclined on the one hand, and the maps of criminals on the other. It is eruptive in nature and suggests freedom and explosive action.116
The confidence of these statements contradicts the earlier caution and makes it clear that Theosophical doctrine was an important foundation for Pluto’s symbolism. How these conclusions were reached is not explained and the same author provides over six pages of observations relating to the three trans-Saturnians, while only three pages are devoted to the other seven planets. Such an attitude presents a model which has been followed by successive authors.
While investigating those references post-dating Pluto’s discovery, it is necessary to note that sources which pre-date 1930 also have a substantial bearing on its symbolism. As previously noted, astrologers and astronomers were hypothesizing future planetary discoveries. For the Theosophist astrologers, this had become a quest for the twelve (different) planetary rulers of the zodiacal signs. Two authors in particular considered that they had achieved that end and published their findings prior to Pluto’s discovery.117 Both laid out their separate schemes which included the asteroids between Mars and Jupiter and the hypothetical planets. One gives hypothetical- Pluto rulership of Cancer, while the other bestows it on Scorpio. It should be understood that although these astrologers were expecting further planetary discoveries, mention of hypothetical-Pluto cannot be seen as a prediction of its discovery. Alongside this was use of Vulcan and Dido among others, and it was pointed out how Alan Leo took pains to differentiate between ‘Lowell- Pluto’ and ‘Wemyss-Pluto’. Wemyss himself maintained that position in the late 1940s when the final volume of his Wheel of Life or Scientific Astrology was published.118
With the confusing lack of contrast between houses and signs we can observe the beginnings of Pluto’s association with the 8th house, the latter being described as of regeneration and progress. Scorpio is described as connected with power, progress, regeneration, and liberation, with hypothetical-Pluto itself being like the ‘negative side of Mars’. What is represented as the ‘keynote’ of Scorpio, ‘Justice’, had been drawn from the myth of Pluto and the Underworld.119 The same author provides a number of example horoscopes, but never explores her theories with the hypothetical planets and the asteroids.
It will be shown that the symbolism attributed to hypothetical-Pluto here, is substantially the same as that in use by present-day astrologers.
No sources could be found which referred to this chart, but the angularity of Mars and the Moon seems to hint at the symbolism which followed since Pluto deposed Mars as ruler of Scorpio and took on the distinctly watery nature usually associated with the Moon. We might also consider that the Sun and Venus’s position in the 8th house, which was also sequestered for Pluto, might have a bearing on the latter’s symbolism. The Sun is the greatest power in the heavens, it exudes great power, heat, and energy by nuclear reaction; all of these principles were given to Pluto, the planet which is the furthest away from the Sun and thus shows the least light. The planet is also connected with sexual power and in this chart we find Venus exalted and conjunct the Sun.
Little is left to say that reflects on Pluto’s symbolism. As the furthest planet of the solar system, it remains the planet about which least is known. The new discoveries were constantly being labelled as ‘mysterious’ or ‘mystical’, but none more so than Pluto.
After the Great War (First World War, 1914-1918), political changes had enormous effect on all that was to follow. Such important changes include the Versailles Peace Settlement of 1919, Gandhi’s domination of the Indian Congress in 1920, the forming of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 and of the USSR in 1922, the ending of the Ottoman Empire in 1923 (which had endured since 1300), and Stalin’s succession of Lenin in 1924. Each bore heavily on world history, the repercussions still offering evidence of their impact to this day.
Pluto, though, is usually only associated with the Great Depression of 1929 to 1933, which led to the World Economic Depression of 1930, and which was directly related to the rise of Nazism (and other extreme political positions), Hitler, and the Second World War of 1939, to which Pluto is also connected.
As Pluto is linked with nuclear fission, it is linked to nuclear weapons and war; from this and its association with the Second World War, it deposed Mars as the ruler of these matters. This change of rulership was and is justified by suggesting that there are different kinds of war: there is war that simply kills people, and that which ‘annihilates’.120
The next outward planet from Neptune is Pluto, therefore this planet must obviously take position as the octave expression of Mars. Its main principle is annihilation, the logical continuation of the state of destruction. In war, a house or building is destroyed, but the rubble can remain. In course of time, if left exposed to the elements, the rubble reduces to smaller fragments and ultimately to powder. Then the four winds of heaven scatter it until finally not the tiniest particle is left. This is disintegration and finally annihilation – nothing – the ‘long term’ vibration of the planet Pluto,…121
Although Whitman is discussing a long-term breaking down of matter, this action has been extended to include mass destruction, an event that cannot, in Theosophist opinion, be encompassed by Mars.
Pluto’s discovery was also associated with racketeering of which there was a high incidence in the USA around 1930. This racketeering was associated with the Prohibition Era of 1920 to 1933, when the consumption of alcohol was banned in the USA. However, the first state law to be passed on the matter was in 1846, with the movement towards national temperance picking up momentum gradually, culminating in the national law of 1920. So, the trend began long before the discovery of Pluto.
Astrologers still aspired to Establishment acceptance, as their enthusiastic inclusion of Pluto in the system attests. They were keen, therefore, to link the scientific and technological discoveries to Pluto’s own discovery, as they had with the earlier discoveries. As with the period of Neptune’s discovery, though, these were in short supply, at least as far as popular awareness and interest was concerned. It was another example of the failure of their criteria to deal adequately with the problem of ascribing symbolism.
Pluto was linked to nuclear or atomic energy, and is said to rule nuclear weapons. The beginnings of atomic philosophy can be found in ancient Greece in the fifth century BC; Democritus of Abdera named the building blocks of matter ‘atomos’ (literally: ‘indivisible’). Modern atomic theory is founded in the work of Dalton and others of the early nineteenth century, while throughout that century further advances were made. As with the scientific advances attributed to Uranus and Neptune, the vital developmental processes were ignored. All that was taken notice of was that in 1932 the neutron was discovered and the atom was split.
There were many names proposed for the new discovery, but once its name had been decided upon, it posed a problem for astrologers. While they were prepared to accept the naming of planets by non-astrologers as meaningful coincidences, as previously mentioned, the name of Pluto had already been used.
Unfortunately astronomers have given it the unsuitable name of Pluto, a name which had already been given to a different hypothetical planet (ruling Cancer). To avoid confusion it is necessary in astrological circles to refer to the original Pluto as Wemyss-Pluto and to the Lowell planet as Lowell-Pluto.122
It failed to prevent confusion, however, and much of the symbolism of ‘Wemyss-Pluto’, including its rulership of Cancer, was passed on to the new discovery.
Their interpretations of the myths relating to Uranus and Neptune had become established and had proved convenient as psychological terminology was increasingly used in astrology. Thus it was, notwithstanding the unfortunate happenstance of the naming of Pluto, that the myth of the God of the Underworld was applied with enthusiasm. The name of this god is actually Hades and he ruled Tartarus. Fearing his wrath and revenge, he was usually called by his surname: Pluto (‘the Rich’) which referred to the riches of the earth.123 It is from this that the planet has gained association with great wealth, corporate wealth, and mines and underground activities. So, racketeering being linked to Pluto is supported through the notion of the criminal ‘underworld’.
As has been shown above, adherence to the principle of ‘octave expressions’ continues to impress on the symbolism of the planets. The slow movement of the trans-Saturnians provides the evidence of their action in the larger world: Mercury represents the ordinary power of thought, but Uranus represents ‘individualized’ power of thought; Venus represents ordinary love, whilst Neptune represents ‘universal’ love; Mars represents destruction, Pluto represents complete destruction (which is what ‘annihilation’ means).124
Further comments can only be repetitive of those under the heads of Uranus and Neptune. The only changes that are in evidence are those made by individuals, and are only variations on the Theosophist theme of ‘octave expressions’.
Misunderstanding of the Astrological System
Under this heading we might include Pluto’s association with regeneration, since this is notably a quality given to hypothetical-Pluto and, as has been shown, was never intended to relate to the newly discovered planet.
The principles of annihilation and death have been taken from Mars and Saturn respectively. Rebirth, too, is given to Pluto, where this has always been associated with the Sun, whose motion through the heavens brings it to rebirth at every dawn. ‘Bringing to light’ is another phrase often used to explain Pluto’s action, and yet such an event is found through the good aspect (usually a trine) of the Sun and the Moon – the Lights. No other illumination can occur other than through the auspices of the Sun, whether actual or metaphoric.125
Once Pluto was announced as the ruler of Scorpio 8th house matters were associated with it because Scorpio is the eighth sign.126
In this respect, mention should be made about that Plutonic word ‘zeitgeist’. It means ‘spirit of the times’ and came to be associated with the trans-Saturnians as a group. The Theosophists used the slowness of their motion as representation of their ‘generational’ effect; several authors stating that they would have little effect on individuals, but that did not reduce the personal detail of their delineations.127 We might take this as an indication of their attempts to remove these planets from individual horoscopic analysis; if their effects were generational, there is little that can be said about one person. Such a position can be seen as a compromise: these planets were failing to live up to expectations in delineations, but could not be removed from the system, so they created another ‘escape clause’.
It is notable that with the increasing number of planets to be attended to by the astrologers, a greater freedom to deconstruct the original scheme was in evidence. In the earlier part of this paper, the fundamental astrological scheme was explained. That scheme is clearly built around the Sun and its apparent astronomical and physical characteristics. In this final assault on the ancient art, Pluto, as was explained earlier, is said to be more powerful than the Sun. In sacred terms, Pluto supplants God of whom the Sun is representative in most western cultures.
Only in the ‘scientific’ mood of the period of these discoveries could such profanity be countenanced, indeed, welcomed. We notice, too, that there are no challenges of a secular nature either, only attempts to keep the new system in place.
The words of Margaret Hone, the principal of the Faculty of Astrological Studies from 1954 to 1969, and who had great influence on the astrological community, should be examined:
…No definite decision has yet been made [on the rulerships of the new planets], but the ideas which are now coming to be accepted will be given. It may be that these new planets embody principles which are wide in their meaning and that they should not be confined to any one rulership, as in the traditional manner.
One way of speaking of them is that each is a ‘higher octave’ of one of the earlier known planets. It is as if they raise the thoughts and widen the outlook of humanity.128
This book was first published in 1951 and underwent four revisions, yet this stalwart of astrological education remained uncertain as to the symbolism of the new planets. The numbers of her students and readers can only be guessed, but her book went through fifteen reprints up to 1980, of which there were two in one year (1969). As with her predecessors, such doubts failed to restrict her from repeating the symbolism of the trans-Saturnians which was absorbed by many thousands of her readers and students.
The following lists of rulerships are drawn from a variety of late twentieth century works and comprise a convenient means of comparison with those rulerships prescribed by authors of the earlier period.129 The modern symbolism is listed under each planet and corresponds to its supposed source, shown in the first column. Although the theory of ‘octave expressions’ was part of Theosophical doctrine, it was advanced as a valid method through misunderstanding the astrological system and so has been included under the latter heading in the table. Under that heading, also, has been included the source of the symbolism, whether planet, house, or sign.
As psychology became prominent in astrological delineations, a change of language is in evidence, but whether it is phrased as a ‘higher type of group intuition’ or the ‘higher octave expression’, it means the same and the source is the same.130 Each of the three new planets was associated with the unconscious mind in one respect or another, and this derives from their, so-called, impenetrable natures. That impenetrability stemmed from the Theosophist astrologers’ inability to find accuracy in their interpretations, a condition which persists to this day.
This analysis of the symbolic accretions of the trans- Saturnians has, in some instances, been frustrated by the lack of logical method used by those promoting their use. The symbolic overlays are drawn from an increasingly spurious and superficial base. Personal opinion, doctrinal, and propagandist motives have confused the various issues. Indeed, the promoters themselves were unclear about how they were or should have been obtaining the natures and qualities of these planets. The symbolism of the new planets has been drawn from a narrowing foundation constructed largely from error and propaganda.
Increasingly, mythology, too, was relied upon, albeit selectively, and was extended to become the archetypes of Jungian psychology. Those who named the planets decided these myths, but this is given scant attention by astrologers; subsequent generations of astrologers having accepted it as meaningful coincidence. The evidence demonstrates quite clearly that the agenda was set for the Theosophists by the events and mood of their time, and yet, although the mood and trends have changed, the symbolism remains substantially unaltered to this day.
The symbolism of the new planets failed the astrologers’ own ‘scientific’ criteria. These planets did not produce the expected events or effects when applied to the astrological chart. If this ever caused doubt, it is not apparent in their writings. Convinced that the theory was correct, it was simply that the practice had not kept up apace, which would be rectified by further experiment. It was left to astrologers of the future to prove their theories, but as little of the symbolism has changed in the ensuing years, that proof has not been forthcoming.
The ‘esoteric’ astrology advanced by the Theosophists, was declared as superior to any other system or philosophy. From this, and in the confusion of astrological principles and techniques, the motivations of astrologers like Leo become clear. Manifestly, astrology was converted, deliberately and knowingly, to conform to Theosophist doctrine. The conversion of the astrological system was carried out with very little consideration given to the result – conviction of the probity of their actions fuelling their momentum. Indeed, anything was deemed better than the system it replaced. That doctrine was presented as Truth, and still forms the major part of astrological practice today, especially regarding the trans-Saturnian planets. Their conviction and their errors laid open this ancient and divine science to the illegitimate excesses which spawned the changeling system.
Before attempting to combine astrology with a personal philosophy, it is required that astrology’s own philosophy is understood. The difficulties of subjectivity, also, need to be addressed in the attempt to remain detached from the trends of a particular era. The effects of both from the period in question have been disproportionate and little has been done to correct the balance.
Under each point of analysis, the basis of the qualities of these planets has been shown to be insecure, and, subsequently, the Theosophist astrologers were forced to fall back to defensive positions. No point was ever proved astrologically, by experience, statistical evidence, or otherwise. Nevertheless, what those astrologers achieved was of no small importance: they convinced enough influential authors that their opinions were right. Those opinions have become established and many thousands of students have been taught them as proved facts.
Present-day astrologers repeat and replicate the symbolism laid down by the Theosophist astrologers. If an astrologer is not required to predict, in fact is often taught not to predict, then there is no requirement for accuracy. Likewise, there is no requirement for the planets to behave, astrologically speaking, in any predictable way. It is said that it is not possible to understand, or know, how the new planets will behave because they are ‘generational’ in effect, or they effect the deeper regions of our unconscious minds, thus not only can the astrologer not predict their actions, but the native has no way of registering that action. In other words, the astrological community is no further ahead with the symbolism of these planets, than were their forebears. In the early periods of their discoveries a few people argued against their astrological significance; in this the twenty-first century, the situation remains the same.
These authors were also exercised by the necessity to popularize astrology and impress the scientific community, however, whilst the former was achieved, astrology seems as far removed from acceptance by academia as ever it was, and for much the same reasons. Symbolism has been established on the flimsiest of grounds, and when it failed in practice, that symbolism was altered to accommodate such failure. It is unsurprising that the scientific establishment is not impressed to investigate astrology. The plausibility of those arguments is attractive only to those astrologers who have been trained in the ways of Theosophist astrology, and they are currently in the majority.
Examples are often provided for the efficacy of the trans- Saturnians in terms of their predictive capacities. This is quite apart from those who often quote the effects they have noticed personally. However, this evidence derives from those astrologers who are most firmly convinced of the symbolism: personal evidence comes from those same astrologers. Moreover, they have been taught in the modern school, which, as has been shown, is based on the Theosophist system. There is little new evidence to be obtained from such sources.
The symbolism of any chart, or group of charts, is multifarious. Identifying the ‘active’ planets requires the training and discipline which few astrologers have. The options available to the astrologer are varied, so it is easy to mistake one for another. Intuition might also be a factor in the successful prediction based on erroneous evidence. However, when a rigorous approach is applied, the new planets are superfluous. They cannot tell us anything new because there is nothing new to tell.
Astrologers should disabuse themselves of the certainty that the symbolism that has maintained regarding these planets had anything to do with astrological method, rectitude, or truth. It has maintained because those who promoted them had a vested interest in so doing, and their numbers and influence were overwhelming. Few were prepared to confront the jumble of sources when they failed in practice, and excuse was layered upon excuse, until astrologers of the present day no longer expect a logical approach. The New Age attitude predominates, and is just as disapproving of logic and common sense as it ever was. If the symbolism does not make sense, or if it fails in practice, it says that the practitioner should pay more heed to the spiritual model it sets.
The reader is left incredulous and confused. A raft of inaccuracies, illogicality, superficiality, and propagandist conveniences assails the intellect. Then, as now, such a non-conformist point of view is deemed non-astrological, or lacking in astrological understanding and borders on the heretical. It is said that there are certain qualities pertaining to the trans-Saturnians that are ‘unknowable’ to all but the most advanced souls. Yet, astrology was conceived as a method of understanding Divine Will; astrology is meant to be ‘known’. To say that we are not meant to know yet is an excuse for ignorance and pretended knowledge.
A return to the beginning is necessary because the primary questions remain unanswered: do the trans- Saturnian planets have astrological significance? Indeed, do they have to have astrological significance?
97 Francis Moore, Vox Stellarum (London, 1865).
98 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 112.
99 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 112.
100 Sasha Fenton, The Planets (London, 1994).
101 Lilly, Christian Astrology, p. 59.
102 Charles and Suzy Harvey, Astrology: the only introduction you’ll ever need (London, 1999), p. 89.
103 ‘Obsession’ is a term used by Spiritualists to mean ‘possession by spirits of the dead’.
104 Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, p. 37.
105 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. x.
106 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 113.
107 Robson, A Beginner’s Guide to Practical Astrology, p. 13.
108 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 104.
109 Harrison, The Measure of Life, p. 19.
110 Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, p. 232.
111 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 108.
112 Robson, A Beginner’s Guide to Practical Astrology, p. 113.
113 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 117.
114 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, pp. 10 & 113. Leo also attributed hospitals to Neptune.
115 Brunhubner, Pluto.
116 Harrison, The Measure of Life, pp. 15 & 25.
117 Maurice Wemyss and Isabelle M. Pagan.
118 Maurice Wemyss, Wheel of Life or Scientific Astrology, (London 1927–1929 & Vol. 5 post-1945), p. 117.
119 Isabelle Pagan, From Pioneer to Poet or the Twelve Great Gates (London, 1926, 2nd ed.).
120 Sepharial, The Manual of Astrology, p. 16.
121 Edward W. Whitman, Pluto the Transformer and Annihilator: The Planet of Fission in the Twelve Houses of the Horoscope. (Self-published, London. The publication date is uncertain, but according to the text it appears that the booklet was written in the 1950s), p. 7.
122 Leo, The Art of Synthesis, p. 123. Alan Leo died in 1917, but his books continued to be revised and published under his name.
123 Grimal, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology.
124 Whitman, Pluto the Transformer, p. 7.
125 For more on this see, ‘The Sun in the Traditional System’,NCGR Geocosmic Journal, Winter 2010, pp. 64-66.
126 Harrison, The Measure of Life, p. 28.
127 For example, Leo, Casting the Horoscope (London, 1933; first published as Astrology For All Part II, London 1904), p. 199; Leo, How to Judge a Nativity, pp. 66.
128 Margaret Hone, The Modern Text Book of Astrology: Revised Edition (Romford, 1980), pp. 32-33.
129 See separate bibliography in the Appendix.
130 Liz Greene, The Outer Planets and Their Cycles: The Astrology of the Collective (California, 1996).
翻譯：Hueimin Lin/Julie Ho｜編審：Maki S. Zhai
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